IBD Multifactorial diseases

Welcome to this section where we will explore the risk factors and protective factors that have been described in association to IBD. Delve into the intricate web of factors influencing IBD onset but take into account that most of the evidence comes  from observational studies and as such caution is required when driving conclusions.

Remember, while associations abound, none of these factors alone can explain IBD development—association does not imply causation.

DIET

2024 Diet and Nutritional Therapies- AGA expert review

AGA Clinical Practice Update on Diet and Nutritional Therapies in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Expert Review

See study

2023 Food processing & IBD risk SR & meta-analysis

Food Processing and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

See study

2023 Early life diet & IBD risk

Early-life diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a pooled study in two Scandinavian birth cohorts

See study

2023 Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system & IBD risk

Dietary index based on the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

See study

2023 Food processing & IBD risk

Food Processing and Risk of CD and UC: A European Prospective Cohort Study

See study

2023 Protein-Protein sources & IBD risk meta-analysis

The Association between Total Protein, Animal Protein, and Animal Protein Sources with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

See study

2023 ultraprocessed food-CD

Association of ultra-processed food intake with Crohn’s disease (Cross-sectional & prospective analysis-UK)

See study

2022 Ultraprocessed food- IBD

Ultra-processed Foods and Risk of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Cohort Study (Nurses’ Health I&II and Health Professionals)

See study

2022 meat intake-UC

Meat intake associated with UC risk (Cohort-EPIC cohort Europe)

See study

2022 protein intake-IBD meta-analysis

Protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: A meta-analysis

See study

2021 dietary & environmental IBD risk factors meta-analysis

Systematic review with meta-analysis: environmental and dietary differences of inflammatory bowel disease in Eastern and Western populations

See study

2021 ultraprocessed food-IBD

Association of ultra-processed food intake with IBD risk (Cohort-21 different countries-PURE study)

See study

2021 Dietary Fiber, Fruit & Vegetables-IBD meta-analysis

Association of Dietary Fiber, Fruit, and Vegetable Consumption with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

See study

2021 ultraprocessed food & dietary pattern-IBD

Dietary Patterns, Ultra-processed Food, and the Risk of IBD in the NutriNet-Santé Cohort (France)

See study

2020 Western diet-IBD risk meta-analysis

Systematic review and meta-analysis: Association of a pre-illness Western dietary pattern with the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2020 n-3 PUFA, fish and IBD risk meta-analysis

Dietary intake of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

See study

2019 Sweetened beverages & IBD

No Association Between Consumption of Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Later-Onset Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis

See study

2019 Carbohydrate & IBD meta-analysis

A meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate intake and inflammatory bowel disease risk: evidence from 15 epidemiology studies

See study

2017 Beverage consumption & UC meta-analysis

Beverage consumption and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

See study

2017 Carbohydrate & protein- IBD meta-analysis

Carbohydrate and protein intake and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

See study

2017 Fat intake- UC meta-analysis

Fat intake and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

See study

2016 Dietary pattern-IBD

Dietary Patterns and Risk of IBD in Europe: Results from the EPIC Study

See study

2015 Dietary fiber-IBD meta-analysis

Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of inflammatory bowel disease: result from a meta-analysis

See study

2015 Vegetables & fruit-IBD meta-analysis

Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis

See study

2015 Meat intake-IBD meta-analysis

See study

2014 Dietary pattern-IBD

Diettary pattern and risk of IBD (EPIC study cohort-Europe)

See study

2014 n3PUFA docosahexaenoic acid-CD

Association between high dietary intake of the n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and reduced risk of Crohn’s disease

See study

2014 Dietary fat-IBD

Long-term intake of dietary fat and risk of IBD (Nurses’ Health Study cohorts-US)

See study

2014 arachidonic and oleic acid-UC

Dietary arachidonic and oleic acid intake in UC

(Cohort- UK)

See study

2014 Carbohydrate intake-IBD

Carbohydrate Intake in the Etiology of IBD (cohort study-EPIC study-Europe)

See study

2013 Dietary fiber-IBD

Dietary fibre and IBD risk (Nurses’ Health Study cohort-US)

See study

2010 n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-UC

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids & UC (cohort study-UK)

See study

2010 Animal protein-CD

Animal Protein Intake and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The E3N Prospective Study (France)

See study

2009 linoleic acid-UC

Linoleic acid (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) and UC (nested case-control within European cohort)

See study

2008 linoleic acid-UC

Diet in the aetiology of UC: a European prospective cohort study (EPIC study)

See study

2008 Diet-pediatric CD

Dietary patterns and risk for CD in children (case-controls. Canada)

See study

2008 Diet-UC

Dietary patterns and UC (EPIC study. Europe)

See study

2007 Fatty acids, vegetable & fruit imbalance

Imbalances in Dietary Consumption of Fatty Acids, Vegetables, and Fruits are associated with pediatric CD (Case-control -Canada)

See study

2005 Dietary factors-IBD

Dietary Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Case-control -Japan)

See study

2005 Diet-UC

Diet as a risk factor for the development of ulcerative colitis

(Case-control -Netherlands)

See study

1997 Pre-illness dietary factors

Pre-illness dietary factors in IBD (Case-control Israel)

See study

1996 n6PUFA & animal portein-CD

Increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of CD in Japan

See study

1988 Sugar and smoking-CD

Smoking and sugar intake are separate but interactive risk factors in CD

See study

1988 Sugar and margarine-CD

Geographic and temporal variations of sugar and margarine consumption in relation to Crohn’s disease

See study

1979 Preillness diet-CD

Diet and Crohn’s disease: characteristics of the pre-illness diet (case-control)

See study

 

1978 Breakfast-CD

Breakfast composition and CD risk

See study

See study

See study

1977 Breakfast cornflakes-CD

Geographic and temporal variations of sugar and margarine consumption in relation to Crohn’s disease (cases-controls)

See study

1976 Refined carbohydrates-CD

Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates in patients with CD (case-control. Germany)

See study

DIET

ANTIBIOTICS

(& antihelminthic)

2023 Antibiotics & new onset IBD meta-analysis
The association of antibiotic exposure with new-onset inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
2023 Antibiotic use & IBD Danish cohort
Antibiotic use as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease across the ages: a population-based cohort study
2023 Maternal antibiotic exposure & IBD in offspring

Maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of IBD in offspring: a population-based cohort study

2022 Mebendazole & IBD risk

Early-Life Mebendazole Exposure Increases the Risk of Adult-Onset Ulcerative Colitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

2022 Perinatal antibiotic & IBD risk

Perinatal and Antibiotic Exposures and the Risk of Developing Childhood-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study Based on a Population-Based Birth Cohort

2020 Antibiotics in childhood & IBD risk meta-analysis
Correlation between antibiotic use in childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2020 Antibiotics & IBD Swedish case-control
Antibiotic use and IBD risk (Case control study-Sweden)

See study

2019 Fetal & early life antibiotic exposure & very early IBD

Fetal and early life antibiotics exposure and very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study

See study

2014 Antibiotics & IBD risk meta-analysis

Antibiotics Associated With Increased Risk of New-Onset Crohn’s Disease But Not Ulcerative Colitis: A Meta-Analysis

See study

2012 Antibiotics & IBD in children

Antibiotic Exposure and IBD Development Among Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

See study

2010 Antibiotics & pediatric IBD

Association between the use of antibiotics in the first year of life and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

See study

Tobacco

2023 Maternal smoking, offspring smoking, genetic susceptibility & IBD risk

Impact of Maternal Smoking, Offspring Smoking, and Genetic Susceptibility on Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

See study

2022 Causal role of smoking in IBD meta-analysis of Mendelian randomization studies

Appraising the causal role of smoking in multiple diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Mendelian randomization studies

See study

2022 smoking & IBD risk Taiwan

Effect of smoking on the development and outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease in Taiwan: a hospital-based cohort study

See study

2021 Ethnic difference smoking IBD risk meta-analysis

Ethnic Differences in the Smoking-related Risk of IBD

See study

2021 smoking & IBD in Denmark

Risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in smokers lacks causal evidence (Cases-Controls- Denmark)

See study

2020 Passive smoking & pediatric IBD in Japan

Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study

See study

2019 COPD & IBD riks meta-analysis

Association between inflammatory bowel disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2018 smoking & IBD China, India & the US

Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparison of China, India, and the USA (Cases-Controls)

See study

2013 smoking & IBD risk in Hungary

Is Current Smoking Still an Important Environmental Factor in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases? Results from a Population-based Incident Cohort

See study

2012 smoking & IBD risk in US women

A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Women (Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort US)

See study

2009 Passive smoking meta-analysis

Childhood passive smoking and IBD risk

See study

2007 smoking & IBD risk in the US

Smoking and IBD risk (Cohort US-Chicago)

See study

2007 smoking & CD phenotype in Scotland

Smoking and CD phenotype (Cases-controls, UK-Scotland)

See study

2006 Smoking & IBD Meta-analysis

Smoking and IBD risk

See study

2006 Smoking & IBD in Israel

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Israel)

See study

2003 Smoking & UC In Australia

Smoking and UC risk (case-control. Australia)

See study

2002 Smoking & IBD among siblings in the UK

In siblings with similar genetic susceptibility for inflammatory bowel disease, smokers tend to develop CD and non-smokers develop UC (UK)

See study

2000 Smoking & CD in patients with IBD family history in Italy

Smoking and CD risk (case-control. Italy)

See study

1997 Smoking and IBD among jewish in Israel

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Israel)

See study

1997 Smoking and IBD presentation & course in Spain

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Spain)

See study

1995 Smoking & IBD in jewish in Israel

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Israel)

See study

1994 Smoking & UC in the US

Smoking and UC risk (case-control. USA)

See study

1992 Childhood passive smoke and UC risk in the US

Childhood passive smoking and UC risk (case-control. USA)

See study

1990 Smoking & IBD in Sweden

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Sweden)

See study

1988 Smoking & IBD in monozygotic & dizygotic twins in Sweden

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in an unselected population of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. A study of heritability and the influence of smoking (Sweden)

See study

1988 Smoking & IBD in Sweden

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Sweden)

See study

1988 Smoking, sugar & IBD in the UK

Smoking and sugar intake and IBD risk (case-control. UK)

See study

1987 Smoking & UC risk in the US

Smoking and UC risk (case-control. USA)

See study

1987 Smoking & IBD risk in Italy

Smoking and IBD risk (case-control. Italy)

See study

1984 Smoking & CD risk in the UK

Smoking and CD risk (case-control. UK)

See study

TOBACCO

APPENDICECTOMY

2023 appendicectomy & UC risk meta-analysis

The Role of Appendicectomy in Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

See publication

2023 REVIEW APPENDIX role UC

Nature review

See publication

2022 Appendicectomy and IBD risk

Appendectomy and risk for inflammatory bowel disease: effect of age and time post appendectomy – a cohort study

See publication

2022 Childhood appendicitis and IBD

Childhood appendicitis and future risk of inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

2017 UC risk in families affected by appendicitis

Reduced risk of UC in families affected by appendicitis 

See publication

2009 Appendicectomy and UC

Appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and subsequent risk of ulcerative colitis

See publication

2008 appendicectomy & CD meta-analysis

The Risk of Developing Crohn’s Disease After an Appendectomy

See publication

2007 Appendicectomy and CD risk

The risk of developing Crohn’s disease after an appendectomy: a population‐based cohort study in Sweden and Denmark

See publication

2004 Appendicectomy UC+PSC

Epidemiology of appendicectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis

See publication

2003 Appendicectomy and CD

Appendectomy is followed by increased risk of Crohn’s disease

See publication

2002 Australia case-control study IBD

Protective role of appendicectomy on onset and severity of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease 

See publication

2001 Appendectomy & UC

Appendectomy and Protection against Ulcerative Colitis 

See publication

2001 Appendicectomy and UC

Appendectomy protects against the development of ulcerative colitis and reduces its recurrence

See publication

2001 Appendicectomy & CD

Appendectomy is more frequent but not a risk factor in Crohn’s disease while being protective in ulcerative colitis: a comparison of surgical procedures in inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

1999 Appendicectomy & IBD risk

Appendectomy, tonsillectomy, and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

1998 Appendicectomy & more & IBD risk

Appendicectomy, childhood hygiene, Helicobacter pylori status, and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a case control study

See publication

1997 Appendicectomy & IBD risk

Appendectomy and the risk of developing ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease: Results of a large case-control study. South Limburg Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group

See publication

1995 Appendicectomy & IBD risk

Appendectomy and Tonsillectomy in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See publication

Microbiome

2023 Enterobacteriaceae & IBD dysbiosis

Enterobacteriaceae Growth Promotion by Intestinal Acylcarnitines, a Biomarker of Dysbiosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See study

2023 Gut virome & UC

Gut virome-colonising Orthohepadnavirus genus is associated with ulcerative colitis pathogenesis and induces intestinal inflammation in vivo

See study

2023 food-derived yeasts & CD

Selection of cross-reactive T cells by commensal and food-derived yeasts drives cytotoxic TH1 cell responses in Crohn’s disease

See study

2023 Enteric viruses & IBD

Human enteric viruses autonomously shape inflammatory bowel disease phenotype through divergent innate immunomodulation

See study

2023 ASCA & Candida review in human health

From ASCA breakthrough in Crohn’s disease and Candida albicans research to thirty years of investigations about their meaning in human health

See study

2023 Gut microbiota signatures & IBD

Gut microbiota signatures in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2023 Proteins & antimicrobial antibodies and CD

Preclinical Serological Signatures are Associated With Complicated CD at Diagnosis

See study

2023 Gut virome & IBD

Gut virome in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond

See study

2022 review microbiota-IBD

The gut microbiota in IBD

See study

2021 New fecal biomarkers & UC

Novel Fecal Biomarkers That Precede Clinical Diagnosis of Ulcerative Colitis

See study

2021 Pathobionts & CD

Differential prevalence of pathobionts and host gene polymorphisms in chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases: Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis

See study

2019 Gastrointestinal infections & IBD

Gastrointestinal Infection Increases Odds of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Nationwide Case-Control Study

See study

2019 Altered bacterial abundances & IBD

Growth effects of N-acylethanolamines on gut bacteria reflect altered bacterial abundances in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2019 Gut microbiota heterogeneity & IBD

The gut microbiota heterogeneity and assembly changes associated with the IBD

See study

2019 Gut microbiota structure & metabolic activity in IBD

Gut microbiome structure and metabolic activity in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2019 Fusobacterium nucleatum & UC

Fusobacterium nucleatum facilitates ulcerative colitis through activating IL-17F signaling to NF-κB via the upregulation of CARD3 expression

See study

2018 Gut virome & UC

Gut mucosal virome alterations in ulcerative colitis

See study

2018 Gut microbiota & IBD pathogenesis

Gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2018 mucosal dysbiosis & CD

Analysis of endoscopic brush samples identified mucosa-associated dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2017 Helicobacter & Campylobacter species in IBD

Dual role of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species in IBD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2017 Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

See study

2017 microbiota dynamics in IBD

Dynamics of the human gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2017 Ruminococcus gnavus & IBD

A novel Ruminococcus gnavus clade enriched in inflammatory bowel disease patients

See study

2016 Bacteroides Genome variants in pouchitis

Patient-Specific Bacteroides Genome Variants in Pouchitis

See study

2016 Gene-microbiota interactions & IBD

Gene-microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2015 Gut fungal microbiota & IBD

Gut Fungal Microbiota: The Yin and Yang of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See study

2015 Alterations in enteric Virome & IBD

Disease-specific alterations in the enteric virome in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2014 Bacterial protein signals & CD

Bacterial protein signals are associated with Crohn’s disease

See study

2014 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis & UC

A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis

See study

2014 Treatment-naive microbiota in CD

The treatment-naive microbiome in new-onset Crohn’s disease

See study

2012 host-microbe interactions in IBD meta-analysis

Host–microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2011 dysbiosis in inflamed regions in IBD

High-throughput clone library analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota reveals dysbiosis and differences between inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2010 Fecal microbiota dysbiosis & CD

Dysbiosis of fecal microbiota in Crohn’s disease patients as revealed by a custom phylogenetic microarray

See study

2009 mycobacterium avium and pediatric CD

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in children with early-onset Crohn’s disease

See study

2009 Adherent-invasive E. Coli & CD

Molecular diversity of Escherichia coli in the human gut: new ecological evidence supporting the role of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in Crohn’s disease

See study

2009 Mycobacterium avium subspecies & CD

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Reactive CD4 T Cells from Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn’s Disease Patients

See study

2008 Mycobacterium avium subspecies & CD

On the prevalence of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA in the blood of healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2008 Fungi & IBD

Fungi and inflammatory bowel diseases: Alterations of composition and diversity

See study

2006 Reduced diversity & CD

Reduced diversity of faecal microbiota in Crohn’s disease revealed by a metagenomic approach

See study

2005 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae & IBD

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies as predictors of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2004 Reduction in bacterial diversity & IBD

Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2004 AIEC & CD

High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease

See study

2004 MAP & CD

Culture of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the blood of patients with Crohn’s disease

See study

1998 ASCA and pANCA in IBD

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies combined with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and diagnostic role

See study

1998 adherent Escherichia coli strains- CD

Presence of adherent Escherichia coli strains in ileal mucosa of patients with Crohn’s disease

See study

1992 Saccharomyces cerevisiae in CD

Antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae in patients with Crohn’s disease and their possible pathogenic importance.

See study

1992 M.paratuberculosis in CD

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in Crohn’s disease tissue

See study

1990 Saccharomyces cerevisiae & IBD

Serum Antibodies Reactive with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Is IgA Antibody a Marker for Crohn’s Disease?

See study

1990 Saccharomyces cerevisiae & Candida in CD

Antibody to selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s and brewer’s yeast) and Candida albicans in Crohn’s disease

See study

MICROBIOME

GENETICS & OMICS

Dr Laura Fachal (Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK) has played a pivotal role in supporting this section
2023 Epigenetic Analysis of the Trial of Prevention of Post-operative CD

Genome-Wide Methylation Profiling in 229 Patients With Crohn’s Disease Requiring Intestinal Resection: Epigenetic Analysis of the Trial of Prevention of Post-operative Crohn’s Disease (TOPPIC)

See publication

2023 Genetic architecture of IBD across East Asia & Europe

Genetic architecture of the inflammatory bowel diseases across East Asian and European ancestries

See publication

2023 EGR2, ICAM1, IL33, INPP5D, ITK, PDGFD, RGS1, TLR4 in IBD Ashkenazi Jewish

Identifying high-impact variants and genes in exomes of Ashkenazi Jewish inflammatory bowel disease patients

See publication

2023 LHFPL3-AS2 lncRNA in CD

Reduced LHFPL3-AS2 lncRNA expression is linked to altered epithelial polarity and proliferation, and to ileal ulceration in Crohn disease

See publication

2023 IBD within and across families

Risk Factors for Developing Inflammatory Bowel Disease Within and Across Families with a Family History of IBD

See publication

2022 REVIEW Multiomics

Multiomics to elucidate IBD risk factors and pathways

See publication

2022 multiple genes & rare variants associated to CD susceptibility

Large-scale sequencing identifies multiple genes and rare variants associated with Crohn’s disease susceptibility

See publication

2021 Three new susceptibility loci identified in Koreans with IBD

Identification of Three Novel Susceptibility Loci for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Koreans in an Extended Genome-Wide Association Study

See publication

2020 Associations of FUT2 and ABO with CD in Koreans

Association of FUT2 and ABO with Crohn’s disease in Koreans

See publication

2020 Genetic Analysis of UC in Japanese Individuals

Genetic Analysis of Ulcerative Colitis in Japanese Individuals Using Population-specific SNP Array

See publication

2019 RAP1A as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for CD in Japanese

A Genome-wide Association Study Identifying RAP1A as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Crohn’s Disease in Japanese Individuals

See publication

2019 Genetic association of intestinal permeability in CD

Analysis of Genetic Association of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy First-degree Relatives of Patients with Crohn’s Disease

See publication

2019 CD polymorphism, ATG16L1 T300A, alters gut microbiota & enhances local Th1/Th17 response

The Crohn’s disease polymorphism, ATG16L1T300A, alters the gut microbiota and enhances the local Th1/Th17 response

See publication

2018 REVIEW IBD heritability

Determinants of IBD Heritability: Genes, Bugs, and More

See publication

2017 study in detail (via fine mapping) known loci to determine causal variants and genes

Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

See publication

2017 GWAS and exome sequencing that led to the discovery of ADCY7 involvement on UC

Exploring the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease by whole-genome sequencing identifies association at ADCY7

See publication

2017 African-American susceptibility loci in IBD

Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies African-Specific Susceptibility Loci in African Americans With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See publication

2017 Integrine genes activation & IBD

Genome-wide association study implicates immune activation of multiple integrin genes in inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

2017 X Chromosome-wide Association Study Identifies a Susceptibility Locus for IBD in Koreans

X Chromosome-wide Association Study Identifies a Susceptibility Locus for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Koreans

See publication

2016 Meta-analysis with other immune mediated and autoimmune traits, identifies new loci

Analysis of five chronic inflammatory diseases identifies 27 new associations and highlights disease-specific patterns at shared loci

See publication

2016 Identification of Ten Additional Susceptibility Loci for UC in Koreans

Identification of Ten Additional Susceptibility Loci for Ulcerative Colitis Through Immunochip Analysis in Koreans

See publication

2016 A protein-truncating R179X variant in RNF186 protects against UC

A protein-truncating R179X variant in RNF186 confers protection against ulcerative colitis

See publication

2016 Inherited determinants of CD & UC

Inherited determinants of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study

See publication

2016 ILoci at 1q21 and 16q23

Identification of Loci at 1q21 and 16q23 That Affect Susceptibility to Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Koreans

See publication

2015 Heritability in IBD

Heritability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: From the First Twin Study to Genome-Wide Association Studies

See publication

2015 Immunochip Analysis Identification of 6 Susceptibility Loci for CD in Koreans

Immunochip Analysis Identification of 6 Additional Susceptibility Loci for Crohn’s Disease in Koreans

See publication

2015 shared role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in IBD & heterozygous advantage in UC

High-density mapping of the MHC identifies a shared role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in inflammatory bowel diseases and heterozygous advantage in ulcerative colitis

See publication

2015 Identified 38 new susceptibility loci in IBD

Association analyses identify 38 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and highlight shared genetic risk across populations

See publication

2015 Korean GWAS identifies new loci in CD

Genome-wide association study of Crohn’s disease in Koreans revealed three new susceptibility loci and common attributes of genetic susceptibility across ethnic populations

See publication

2014 Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms & IBD risk meta analysis

Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis

See publication

2013 Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms & IBD risk meta analysis

Associations Between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Ulcerative Colitis and Crohns Disease: A Meta-analysis

See publication

2013 Deep resequenciing of GWAS identifies CARD9, IL23R and RNF186 in UC

Deep Resequencing of GWAS Loci Identifies Rare Variants in CARD9, IL23R and RNF186 That Are Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

See publication

2013 GWAS study of UC in Koreans suggests extensive overlapping of genetic susceptibility with Caucasians

A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies 2 Susceptibility Loci for Crohn’s Disease in a Japanese Population

See publication

2013 Two susceptibility Loci for CD in a Japanese

A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies 2 Susceptibility Loci for Crohn’s Disease in a Japanese Population

See publication

2012 Novel susceptibility loci in CD in Ashkenazi Jewish

A Genome-Wide Scan of Ashkenazi Jewish Crohn’s Disease Suggests Novel Susceptibility Loci

See publication

2012 Host–microbe interactions & IBD genetic architecture

Host–microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

2011 Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional UC risk loci

Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47

See publication

2011 microbiota shifts & disease phenotype/genotype

Disease phenotype and genotype are associated with shifts in intestinal-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases

See publication

2011 GWAS loci identifies independent rare variants associated with IBD

Deep resequencing of GWAS loci identifies independent rare variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

2010 GWAS identifies multiple susceptibility loci in UC

Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci

See publication

2010 GWAS identifies 71 loci associated to CD susceptibility (including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2, TAGAP)

Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn’s disease susceptibility loci

See publication

2009 JAK2 (IBD), LYRM4 and CDKAL1 (UC) and more in CD

Investigation of Crohn’s Disease Risk Loci in Ulcerative Colitis Further Defines Their Molecular Relationship

See publication

2009 GWAS of UC susceptibility loci

Genome-wide association study of ulcerative colitis identifies three new susceptibility loci, including the HNF4A region

See publication

2009 Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with UC

Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

See publication

2009 IBD among danish twins

Concordance of Inflammatory Bowel Disease among Danish Twins

See publication

2009 Three new susceptibility loci for UC susceptibility in Japanese

A genome-wide association study identifies three new susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis in the Japanese population

See publication

2008 ECM1 locus in UC

Genetic determinants of ulcerative colitis include the ECM1 locus and five loci implicated in Crohn’s disease

See publication

2007 GWAS including CD

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls

See publication

2007 ATG16L1 CARD15 and IL23R in CD

Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for Crohn disease and implicates autophagy in disease pathogenesis

See publication

2007 IL23R, ATG16L1 & 5p13.1-CD Japan

Association analysis of genetic variants in IL23R, ATG16L1 and 5p13.1 loci with Crohn’s disease in Japanese patients

See publication

2006 ATG16L1-CD

SNPs identifies a susceptibility variant for CD in ATG16L1

See publication

2006 IL23R-IBD

GWAS Identifies IL23R as an IBD Gene

See publication

2005 TNFSF15 in CD

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNFSF15 confer susceptibility to Crohn’s disease

See publication

2005 NOD2/CARD15-Danish twins

Disease Concordance, Zygosity, and NOD2/CARD15 Status. Follow-Up of a Population-Based Cohort of Danish Twins with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See publication

2004 DLG5 & IBD

Genetic variation in DLG5 is associated with inflammatory bowel disease

See publication

2003 NOD2/CARD15-Chinese

NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms and CD in the Chinese population

See publication

2001 NOD2-CD British and German

Association between insertion mutation in NOD2 gene and Crohn’s disease in German and British populations

See publication

2001 NOD2-CD

Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease

See publication

2001 NOD2-CD

A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to CD

See publication

1996 IBD susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3,7 and 12

Two stage genome–wide search in inflammatory bowel disease provides evidence for susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3, 7 and 12

See publication

1996 chromosome 6 and CD

Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn’s disease on chromosome 16

See publication

1991 IBD in families

Familial Occurrence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See publication

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

2023 Maternal Smoking, Offspring Smoking, Genetic Susceptibility & IBD

Impact of Maternal Smoking, Offspring Smoking, and Genetic Susceptibility on Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

See study

2023 Maternal antibiotic exposure

Maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of IBD in offspring: a population-based cohort study

See study

2020 Passive smoking from the mother & IBD

Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study

See study

2021 Mode of delivery meta-analysis

Mode of Delivery Does Not Affect the Risk of IBD

See study

2019 Fetal & early life antibiotics & very early IBD

Fetal and early life antibiotics exposure and very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study

See study

2017 Breastfeeding meta-analysis

Breastfeeding and IBD risk

See study

2014 Mode of delivery & IBD meta-analysis

Mode of Delivery and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

See study

2014 Cesarean delivery & IBD meta-analysis

Cesarean delivery and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2004 Breastfeeding & IBD risk

Breastfeeding and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis

See study

1993 Breastfeeding -CD

Breast-feeding protective for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in childhood

See study

1991 Infant feeding-UC

Infant feeding practices and UC risk (case-control. Canada)

See study

1989 Breastfeeding -CD

Role of infant feeding practices in development of Crohn’s disease in childhood (cases-controls. Canada)

See study

1982 Breastfeeding length -CD

Breast-Feeding during Infancy in Patients Who Later Develop CD was shorter (case-control. Sweden)

See study

1979 Breastfeeding -IBD

Bottle feeding, early gastroenteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

See study

Pregnancy & breastfeeding

EXERCISE & OBESITY

2022 Physical activity in childhood

Physical activity in childhood and later risk of IBD (Scandinavian cohort)

See publication

2022 OBESITY-CD

Obesity is Associated With Increased Risk of CD, but not UC (pooled analysis of 5 cohort studies)

See publication

2019 BMI-IBD meta-analysis

Body mass index and risk of IBD: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of over a million participants

See publication

2018 BMI & IBD risk

Relation of body mass index to risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease amongst women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

See publication

2016 Physical activity meta-analysis

Association between physical activity and IBD

See publication

2015 Obesity & IBD risk

Measures of obesity and risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

See publication

2015 BMI & IBD risk meta-analysis

Body Mass Index Is Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

See publication

2013 BMI & IBD risk

Body Mass Index and the Risk for Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Data From a European Prospective Cohort Study (TheIBDin EPIC Study)

See publication

Mental health

2023 Prevalance Depression/ Anxiety and IBD- meta-analysis

Prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2023 Depression/ Anxiety and IBD

The bidirectional risk of inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety or depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2023 Depression/ Anxiety and bipolar disorder in IBD

Longitudinal trajectories of anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study

See study

2022 Schizophrenia & IBD risk

Schizophrenia and risk of new-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide longitudinal study

See study

2022 Depression-IBD mendelian randomization study

Depression and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Bidirectional Two-sample Mendelian Randomization Study

See study

2022 Schizophrenia & IBD mendelian randomization study

Estimation of the bidirectional relationship between schizophrenia and inflammatory bowel disease using the mendelian randomization approach

See study

2022 Depression-IBD and unaffected siblings

Bidirectional association between inflammatory bowel disease and depression among patients and their unaffected siblings

See study

2021 Depression-IBD risk

Depression in individuals who subsequently develop inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case–control study

See study

2019 Depression, antidepresants-IBD risk

Depression increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease, which may be mitigated by the use of antidepressants in the treatment of depression

See study

2019 Depression-IBD

Depression and IBD: A Bidirectional Two-sample Mendelian Randomization Study

See study

2018 Depression-IBD

Depression increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease, which may be mitigated by the use of antidepressants in the treatment of depression

See study

2013 Depression-IBD NURSES' HEALTH STUDY

Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Incidence of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Results From the Nurses’ Health Study

See study

2007 Stress

Stressful Life Events as a Risk Factor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Onset (case-controls)

See study

Mental health

URBAN LIVING & POLLUTION

2023 PFAS exposure & IBD

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure is associated with later occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2023 Early life hygiene factors

Early-Life Hygiene-Related Factors and Risk of IBD: A Scandinavian Birth Cohort Study

See study

2023 Early life factors

Influence of Early Life Factors, including breast milk Composition, on the Microbiome of Infants Born to Mothers with and without Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See study

2022 perfluoroalkyl substances and IBD

Plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of inflammatory bowel diseases in women: A nested case control analysis in the Nurses’ Health Study cohorts

See study

2022 microplastics

Analysis of Microplastics in Human Feces Reveals a Correlation between Fecal Microplastics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Status

See study

2021 Residential green space & pediatric IBD risk

Residential Greenspace in Childhood Reduces Risk of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

See study

2020 Air pollution and pediatric IBD

Ambient air pollution and the risk of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based cohort study

See study

2019 Urban-rural during childhood & IBD meta-analysis

Urban-rural environmental exposure during childhood and subsequent risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis

See study

2017 Rural/urban living-IBD

Rural and Urban Residence During Early Life is Associated with Risk of IBD: A Population-Based Inception and Birth Cohort Study

See study

2015 Perfluorooctanoic acid and IBD

A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

See study

2013 Perfluorooctanoic acid and UC

Ulcerative colitis and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a highly exposed population of community residents and workers in the mid-Ohio valley

See study

2012 Urban living-IBD meta-analysis

The relationship between urban environment and the inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2010 Rural/urban living-IBD

The inflammatory bowel diseases and ambient air pollution: a novel association

See study

OTHER DRUGS

2023 Antibiotics, Hormonal therapies, contraceptives, NSAIDs & IBD

Associations of Antibiotics, Hormonal Therapies, Oral Contraceptives, and Long-Term NSAIDS With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results From the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study

See study

2023 PPI & IBD

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients Using Proton-Pump Inhibitors: A Population-Based Study

See study

2023 PPI & IBD before and after diagnosis

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Before and After a Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See study

2023 Isotretinoin & IBD risk meta-analysis

Systematic review with meta-analysis: environmental and dietary differences of IBD in Eastern and Western populations

See study

2022 Metformin & IBD risk

Metformin use is not associated with reduced risk of older onset inflammatory bowel disease: a Danish nationwide population-based study

See study

2022 PPI & IBD risk meta-analysis

Proton pump inhibitors use and risk of inflammatory bowel diseases: a meta-analysis of observational studies

See study

2021 PPI & IBD

Regular Use of Proton Pump Inhibitor and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pooled Analysis of 3 Prospective Cohorts

See study

2020 Metformin & IBD risk

Metformin Use Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

See study

2019 PPI, H2 blockers & IBD in children

Proton Pump Inhibitors, H2 Blocker Use, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children

See study

2019 Oral contraceptives & UC risk

Use of oral contraceptives and risk of ulcerative colitis – A systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2013 Oral contraceptives, reproductive factors & IBD risk

Oral contraceptives, reproductive factors and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

2012 Hormone therapy and IBD

Hormone Therapy Increases Risk of Ulcerative Colitis but not Crohn’s Disease

See study

2012 Aspirin, NSAIDs and IBD

Aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and risk for Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: a cohort study

See study

2011 Aspirin & IBD risk

Aspirin in the aetiology of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a European prospective cohort study

See study

2008 Contraceptive pill- meta-analysis

The Risk of Oral Contraceptives in the Etiology of IBD

See study

2005 contraceptives, HRT, appendix and smoking

Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general population (Nested case-controls. UK)

See study

1998 Smoking, oral contraception & breastfeeding & IBD (Italy)

Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breastfeeding in Italy: a nationwide case-control study

See study

1986 IBD, smoking and oral contraceptives

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cigarette smoking, and use of oral contraceptives: findings in a large cohort study of women of childbearing age (UK)

See study

OTHER DRUGS

BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

2023 Immune response & barrier dysfunction in CD

Immune response and barrier dysfunction-related proteomic signatures in preclinical phase of Crohn’s disease highlight earliest events of pathogenesis

See study

2023 Mucin & pediatric IBD

Aberrant Mucin Expression Profiles Associate With Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Presentation and Activity

See study

2020 Intestinal permeability & CD

Increased Intestinal Permeability Is Associated With Later Development of Crohn’s Disease

See study

2019 Intestinal permeability genetic association in CD and healthy first-degree relatives

Analysis of Genetic Association of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy First-degree Relatives of Patients with Crohn’s Disease

See study

2015 Determinants of intestinal permeability in CD

Determinants of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy First-Degree Relatives of Individuals with Crohn’s Disease

See study

2007 Claudin, barrier dysfunction in active CD

Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in active Crohn’s disease

See study

1999 Distinct intestinal permeability in CD and relatives

Different intestinal permeability patterns in relatives and spouses of patients with Crohn’s disease: an inherited defect in mucosal defence?

See study

GEOGRAPHY

2023 Differential IBD diagnosis based on race/immigration status

Differential Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Based on Race and Immigration Status

See study

2019 Population density in Asia-Pacific & IBD

Population Density and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Prospective Population-Based Study in 13 Countries or Regions in Asia-Pacific

See study

2019 Sex-based differences in Asia-Pacific & IBD

Sex-based differences in the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases—pooled analysis of population-based studies from the Asia-Pacific region

See study

2018 Sex-based differences in Western countries & IBD

Sex-Based Differences in Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases-Pooled Analysis of Population-Based Studies From Western Countries

See study

2015 IBD in Immigrants to Canada

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Immigrants to Canada And Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

See study

GEOGRAPHY

OTHER FACTORS

2023 Tryptophan metabolism & IBD

Rewiring the altered tryptophan metabolism as a novel therapeutic strategy in inflammatory bowel diseases

See study

2022 Environmental & dietary factors meta-analysis

Systematic review with meta-analysis: environmental and dietary differences of IBD in Eastern and Western populations

See study

2022 prematurity, delivery & feeding-IBD

Prematurity, Delivery Method, and Infant Feeding Type Are Not Associated with Paediatric-onset IBD Risk

See study

2021 periodontitis & IBD meta-analysis

The Association between Periodontitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

See study

2020 periodontitis & IBD meta-analysis

Association between periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

See study

2020 Early-life exposures & IBD based on deciduous teeth analysis

Association Between Early-life Exposures and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Based on Analyses of Deciduous Teeth

See study

2020 Environmental risk factors & IBD

Identification of Environmental Risk Factors Associated With the Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

See study

2019 Umbrella review meta-analysis

Environmental factors in IBD

See study

2016 Environmental & hygiene factors

Environmental Hygiene and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

See study

2016 Tonsillectomy-IBD meta-analysis

Tonsillectomy and the risk of IBD

See study

2016 Environmental factors in China

Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study

See study

2016 Vitamin D & IBD risk meta-analysis

Association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

See study

2014 Sleep duration & IBD

Sleep Duration Affects Risk for Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Cohort Study

See study

2014 ECCO-EpiCom

Environmental factors in a population-based inception cohort of IBD patients in Europe — An ECCO-EpiCom study

See study

2011 Environmental factors in IBD Danish cohort

Environmental factors in IBD: A case-control study based on a Danish inception cohort

See study

2001 Risk factors of CD (Spain)

Environmental risk factors and Crohn’s disease (Case-controls. Spain)

See study

2000 Early determinants of IBD (UK)

Early determinants of IBD use of two national longitudinal birth cohorts (Nested case-controls. UK)

See study

1998 Modern life & IBD (The Netherlands)

Modern life in the epidemiology of IBD

See study

1994 Childhood infections & IBD risk

Childhood infections and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease

See study

1994 IBD risk and domestic hygiene in infancy

Inflammatory bowel disease and domestic hygiene in infancy

See study

1990 UC risk, smoking & alcohol (Japan)

A Case-Control Study of Ulcerative Colitis with Relation to Smoking Habits and Alcohol Consumption in Japan

See study

1990 Perinatal risk factors & IBD kids

PERINATAL RISK FACTORS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

See study

1987 Childhood factors & IBD kids

Childhood factors in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

See study

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